Pesquisa relata impactos na vida de pacientes curados do câncer

“Sem chão”. Esse foi o primeiro sentimento que a servidora pública, Osmarina Gomes, de 55 anos, e sua família tiveram após ser diagnosticada com câncer de mama, em 2001. Mas, após receber o apoio da família e realizar todo o tratamento no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), hoje está curada e é uma das sobreviventes do câncer. Casos semelhantes ao de Osmarina foram mote da pesquisa “Compreendendo a Sobrevivência ao Câncer na América Latina: os casos do Brasil”, divulgada pelo Ministério da Saúde e o Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA), nesta segunda-feira (04/02), na sede do INCA, no Rio de Janeiro, durante cerimônia em alusão ao Dia Mundial do Câncer.

Com o crescimento do número de casos novos e as atuais taxas de sobrevida para o câncer no Brasil, o número de pessoas que sobrevive à doença tem aumentado significativamente, tornando o acompanhamento desse grupo um grande desafio para a rede de saúde. Desta forma, o estudo apresentado tem uma abordagem qualitativa e aprofundou temas ligados à sobrevivência em entrevistas com pacientes e familiares.

De acordo com a diretora do Departamento de Atenção Especializada e Temática, do Ministério da Saúde, Inês Gadelha, o levantamento é importante para identificar que a população é a principal aliada na prevenção da doença. “O controle do câncer exige muito mais que acesso, organização de serviço, diagnóstico e tratamento. Ele exige uma população atenta, consciente de que ela tem o maior ativo nesse controle. Se nós adotarmos hábitos saudáveis de vida, combater o sedentarismo e o tabagismo, poderíamos evitar cerca de 70 mil mortes por câncer”, pontuou dra. Inez Gadelha.

Para o estudo, foram entrevistados 47 indivíduos diagnosticados há pelo menos 12 meses com câncer de próstata, mama, colo de útero e Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda (LLA) e 12 familiares/cuidadores, em hospitais públicos e privados, nas capitais Rio de Janeiro (RJ) e Fortaleza (CE) em 2014 e 2015.

A maioria dos entrevistados já havia sido submetida ao tratamento e estava na fase de acompanhamento oncológico, que pode durar até cinco anos. Outros entrevistados ainda estavam na fase final do tratamento ou no período de tempo entre 5 e 18 anos após o diagnóstico. De acordo com o INCA, estudos apontam que, a sobrevida mediana estimada, com base em registros de câncer, para o câncer de mama é de 74%, para o câncer de próstata, de 79% e, para o câncer do colo do útero, de 64%.

A pesquisa “Compreendendo a Sobrevivência ao Câncer na América Latina” se baseou em três vertentes: consequências físicas, emocionais e socioeconômicas do tratamento; mudanças no estilo de vida; e atendimento pela rede de atenção oncológica pública e privada. Entre alguns dos resultados, foi apontada a importância de se ter suporte emocional não só para os pacientes como também para os familiares, que também sofrem no processo. Outra constatação foi que a doença estreitou laços afetivos e atraiu a manifestação de apoio e solidariedade vindos de grupos familiares, religiosos, colegas de trabalho e também dos profissionais de saúde.

A pesquisa trouxe o relato dos pacientes e de familiares que apontaram a necessidade de alterações nas atividades do dia a dia, após o tratamento da doença. Eles citam, por exemplo, o retorno às atividades laborais, alguns agora com restrições físicas e emocionais importantes. Ainda nos relatos, os familiares, em função do cuidado intensivo que alguns indivíduos com câncer passam a demandar, destacaram a necessidade de adaptar horários de trabalho e lazer.

Ainda durante a cerimônia no Inca, foi lançada a Campanha “Eu sou e eu vou”, da União Internacional para o Controle do Câncer (UICC), o qual a diretora-geral do INCA, Ana Cristina Pinho, é integrante. A ação tem o objetivo de fazer um apelo ao compromisso pessoal e representar o poder que uma ação individual tomada no momento presente tem de impactar o futuro. Além disso, a campanha tem o intuito de informar ao indivíduo que ele tem o poder de reduzir o impacto do câncer na sua vida, na vida das pessoas com que convive e no mundo. A campanha terá duração de três anos (2019-2021).

“A campanha é importante porque nos faz compreender nosso papel na sociedade em relação à doença. E mostra que podemos mudar nossos hábitos, nos informar, ter um papel de destaque, com relação à prevenção da doença”, destacou a diretora-geral do Instituto Nacional do Câncer (INCA), Ana Cristina Pinho.

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